Food diplomacy: what is Brazil’s appetite on the world stage? International regulation of food production and trade – Executive Summary

Study designed by Instituto Escolhas and carried out by researchers Leane Cornet Naidin, Pedro da Motta Veiga and Sandra Poland Rivers of the Center for Integration and Development Studies (Cindes) analyzed the functioning and trends of the international food trade, as Brazil has been positioning itself in this scenario and how private agents in the Brazilian agricultural sector have influenced this position.

Understanding the rules and the movements of this game that we are calling Food Diplomacy is fundamental for society to be able to monitor the movements of international trade and its reflexes for Brasil, be them about economic, social order or environmental.

From pasture to plate: subsidies and the environmental footprint

A study designed by Instituto Escolhas and prepared by researchers Petterson Molina Vale and Roberto Strumpf, analyzes the economic and environmental impacts of the beef chain in Brazil. This is an unprecedented approach that encompasses the entire trajectory of the product, from the birth of the calf to the plate of the consumer, over a period of 10 years. The analyses of economic impacts present the amounts of taxes collected and the subsidies granted by the state and federal governments. The environmental impact analysis shows the carbon footprint, with emissions and removals of greenhouse gases (GHG), and the water footprint, with data on water consumption.

A New Economy for the Amazon: Manaus Free Zone and Bioeconomics

A study devised by Instituto Escolhas, coordinated by Sergio Leitão, and prepared by Gabriel Kohlmann, Public Policy Manager at Prospectiva, and economist Carlos Manso, a specialist in regional development, identified four axes of opportunities to diversify economic activity and boost sustainable development from Amazonas. The document presents the critical success factors, the conditions for leveraging the bioeconomy in the state and shows that, with public and private investments of R $ 7.15 billion in infrastructure, over ten years, it is possible to create 218 thousand direct jobs and indirect.



Electric Sector: how to price water in a scarcity scenario

Conceived by Instituto Escolhas and prepared by PSR Energy Consulting and Solutions, the study analyzes three cases involving water scarcity situations in the São Francisco and Jaguaribe river basins – and the recent problems involving thermal power plants – and the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Power Plant. The proposed results and methodologies are the starting point for the debate on the need to establish water as an input and on the adoption of pricing mechanisms. The objective is to present the tools that can contribute to the construction of public policies to mitigate the dispute for water and avoid impacts on the operation of the National Interconnected System (SIN), with billionaire losses to the national economy and the consequent transfer to the consumer, through increases on the electricity bill.

Rural Territorial Tax: tax justice and environmental incentives

The study was designed by Instituto Escolhas and carried out in partnership with Soil Use and Preservation Planning Laboratory (Laboratório de Planejamento de Uso do Solo e Conservação – GeoLab) and Public Policies Group (Grupo de Políticas Públicas – GPP) of Esalq/USP, the economist Bernard Appy and the jurist Carlos Marés. The purpose of the study is to propose the update of the collection parameters of the Rural Territorial Tax (ITR), with the revision of the Table of Livestock Occupancy, and preparation of a new regulation of the tax, especially to solve the conflicts now existing between ITR and the environmental legislation. Additionally, the study presents simulation of scenarios of implementation of such proposals that allow assessing the impact on the tax collection.

Live Far: Minha Casa Minha Vida program and the expansion of the Metropolitan Regions – Executive Summary

The study is an achievement of Instituto Escolhas in partnership with the Center for Policy and Economy of the Public Sector of the Getúlio Vargas Foundation (CEPESP / EAESP / EESP) with support from the Tide Setubal Foundation. The objective of the study is to investigate if the MCMV contributed to the urban expansion and, with this, to the aggravation of the problems of the Brazilian metropolises such as: the deterioration of the central areas, population residing in areas with little infrastructure of public services and far from the places affecting urban mobility. Twenty metropolitan regions were evaluated:  Belém, Belo Horizonte, Campinas, Cuiabá, Curitiba, Distrito Federal, Florianópolis, Fortaleza, Goiânia, Manaus, Palmas, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Salvador, São Luís, São Paulo, Teresina e Vitória.

What are the real costs and benefits of electric power generation sources in Brazil? – Executive Summary

Study coordinated by Instituto Escolhas with the technical execution of PSR Consultoria and HPPA teams. It presents an unprecedented methodology that calculates the total cost of energy generation in Brazil through the valuation of the attributes of five components for each generation source provided for in the Decennial Energy Plan (PDE) 2026.

Urban Mobility & Low Carbon

Survey of opinion on urban mobility and low carbon adapted from an American version promoted by the Oil Transportation Research and Intelligence Network. Held by Ideia Big Data and commissioned by the Climate and Society Institute in partnership with Instituto Escolhas, the research was carried out in October 2017 and heard 3,000 people throughout Brazil. The data collection was done through personal interviews applied via telephone. The margin of error is approximately 2.25 percentage points for more or less than the results found in the total sample, with a 95% confidence interval.

What is the impact of zero deforestation in Brazil?

A study coordinated by Sergio Leitão and Lígia Vasconcellos (Instituto Escolhas), with biophysical and land use analysis of Gerd Sparovek, Vinícius Guidotti (Geolab – Esalq / USP) and Luiz Fernando Guedes Pinto (Imaflora). Economic analysis by Joaquim Bento de Souza Ferreira Filho (Esalq-USP), sought to answer the economic and social impact of zeroing deforestation in Brazil.

What is the impact of zero emissions from the eletricity sector in Brazil

Study designed by the Escolhas Institute Coordination: Ligia Vasconcellos and Shigueo Watanabe Jr., (Escolhas Institute) Elaboration: William Wills (EOS Strategy & Sustainability).

The shadow price of cooperative membership on agriculture in the Brazilian south and southeast regions

A quadratic normalized restricted profit function was used to estimate the marginal effect of co-ops (shadow price) on agricultural profit of the South and Southeast regions of Brazil. These regions are responsible for more than 50% of Brazilian production and the government has implemented several public policies aiming to improve production management of co-ops, which correspond to 24% of producers in this region. Overall, the preliminary results suggest a positive effect of co-ops membership on agricultural profits for the South and Southeast regions of Brazil. Additionally, a positive effect of co-ops membership on commodity supply and on input demand was found, which suggest that although it increases supply of these commodities it also intensify the use of variable inputs.

The likelihood of a water market in Brazil

The paper examines the likelihood of a water market in Brazil. The US water market, probably the oldest and most well-documented case, is initially analyzed. In the American West, water permits were transformed into property rights more than 140 years ago. However, mainly due to high transaction costs, only recently the trading became regular. Analyzing the Brazilian case, it is clear that the country does not have the problem of water availability that the American West has. On the other hand, Brazil has poor water infrastructure. As such, more than 35% of cities had no water for months in 2012, although the country possesses 12% of the world’s fresh water. To implement a water market, the first step would be to change the water diversion entitlements in keeping with the property rights. It is argued that this would be an opportunity to force users to invest in water infrastructure. Thus, a model is built to study the conditions under which the market would lead to a Pareto superior situation. Keywords: water right, water market, Brazilian water law.