Rural Territorial Tax: tax justice and environmental incentives

The study was designed by Instituto Escolhas and carried out in partnership with Soil Use and Preservation Planning Laboratory (Laboratório de Planejamento de Uso do Solo e Conservação – GeoLab) and Public Policies Group (Grupo de Políticas Públicas – GPP) of Esalq/USP, the economist Bernard Appy and the jurist Carlos Marés. The purpose of the study is to propose the update of the collection parameters of the Rural Territorial Tax (ITR), with the revision of the Table of Livestock Occupancy, and preparation of a new regulation of the tax, especially to solve the conflicts now existing between ITR and the environmental legislation. Additionally, the study presents simulation of scenarios of implementation of such proposals that allow assessing the impact on the tax collection.

Live Far: Minha Casa Minha Vida program and the expansion of the Metropolitan Regions – Executive Summary

The study is an achievement of Instituto Escolhas in partnership with the Center for Policy and Economy of the Public Sector of the Getúlio Vargas Foundation (CEPESP / EAESP / EESP) with support from the Tide Setubal Foundation. The objective of the study is to investigate if the MCMV contributed to the urban expansion and, with this, to the aggravation of the problems of the Brazilian metropolises such as: the deterioration of the central areas, population residing in areas with little infrastructure of public services and far from the places affecting urban mobility. Twenty metropolitan regions were evaluated:  Belém, Belo Horizonte, Campinas, Cuiabá, Curitiba, Distrito Federal, Florianópolis, Fortaleza, Goiânia, Manaus, Palmas, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Salvador, São Luís, São Paulo, Teresina e Vitória.

What are the real costs and benefits of electric power generation sources in Brazil? – Executive Summary

Study coordinated by Instituto Escolhas with the technical execution of PSR Consultoria and HPPA teams. It presents an unprecedented methodology that calculates the total cost of energy generation in Brazil through the valuation of the attributes of five components for each generation source provided for in the Decennial Energy Plan (PDE) 2026.

Urban Mobility & Low Carbon

Survey of opinion on urban mobility and low carbon adapted from an American version promoted by the Oil Transportation Research and Intelligence Network. Held by Ideia Big Data and commissioned by the Climate and Society Institute in partnership with Instituto Escolhas, the research was carried out in October 2017 and heard 3,000 people throughout Brazil. The data collection was done through personal interviews applied via telephone. The margin of error is approximately 2.25 percentage points for more or less than the results found in the total sample, with a 95% confidence interval.

What is the impact of zero deforestation in Brazil?

A study coordinated by Sergio Leitão and Lígia Vasconcellos (Instituto Escolhas), with biophysical and land use analysis of Gerd Sparovek, Vinícius Guidotti (Geolab – Esalq / USP) and Luiz Fernando Guedes Pinto (Imaflora). Economic analysis by Joaquim Bento de Souza Ferreira Filho (Esalq-USP), sought to answer the economic and social impact of zeroing deforestation in Brazil.

What is the impact of zero emissions from the eletricity sector in Brazil

Study designed by the Escolhas Institute Coordination: Ligia Vasconcellos and Shigueo Watanabe Jr., (Escolhas Institute) Elaboration: William Wills (EOS Strategy & Sustainability).

The shadow price of cooperative membership on agriculture in the Brazilian south and southeast regions

A quadratic normalized restricted profit function was used to estimate the marginal effect of co-ops (shadow price) on agricultural profit of the South and Southeast regions of Brazil. These regions are responsible for more than 50% of Brazilian production and the government has implemented several public policies aiming to improve production management of co-ops, which correspond to 24% of producers in this region. Overall, the preliminary results suggest a positive effect of co-ops membership on agricultural profits for the South and Southeast regions of Brazil. Additionally, a positive effect of co-ops membership on commodity supply and on input demand was found, which suggest that although it increases supply of these commodities it also intensify the use of variable inputs.

The likelihood of a water market in Brazil

The paper examines the likelihood of a water market in Brazil. The US water market, probably the oldest and most well-documented case, is initially analyzed. In the American West, water permits were transformed into property rights more than 140 years ago. However, mainly due to high transaction costs, only recently the trading became regular. Analyzing the Brazilian case, it is clear that the country does not have the problem of water availability that the American West has. On the other hand, Brazil has poor water infrastructure. As such, more than 35% of cities had no water for months in 2012, although the country possesses 12% of the world’s fresh water. To implement a water market, the first step would be to change the water diversion entitlements in keeping with the property rights. It is argued that this would be an opportunity to force users to invest in water infrastructure. Thus, a model is built to study the conditions under which the market would lead to a Pareto superior situation. Keywords: water right, water market, Brazilian water law.

The impacts of climate changes on agriculture production and adaptative strategies for family farmers in the Brazilian Sertão

This study analyzes the impacts of climate conditions on the agricultural production and how adaptative strategies may alleviate such effects. First, it analyzes the dynamics of climate variables between 1974 and 2013 in the semi-arid region of the State of Bahia, the largest and most populous State of the Sertão. Secondly, based on a panel with climatic and production data, it assesses the 1 Paper submitted to the 44o Encontro Nacional de Economia – Foz do Iguaçu, December 13th to 16th , 2016. 2 ex-post impacts of these climate variables on the agricultural production of the municipalities in the region. Thirdly, it estimates the relation between several adaptive strategies and the family farmers’ production, based on microdata of the Brazilian Agricultural Census for small farmers in the region. The study evaluates four main agricultural productions: milk, cattle, goat, sheep and corn. The final and general aim of this study is to discuss the effectiveness of strategies for small farmers which would create climate resilience and attenuate the negative impacts of climate change on the agricultural production of this vulnerable region.

Spillover effects of blacklisting policy in the Brazilian Amazon

We analyse the effects of the Priority Municipalities List, that indicates the primary targets of environmental police monitoring, on deforestation of municipalities in the neighbourhood of the listed. We argue that being a neighbour to a priority municipality causes an exogenous variation in environmental authorities’ presence, and use a difference-in-differences estimator to determine the impact of such presence on deforestation. As an innovative feature, we introduce a spatial version of this estimator to correct spatial dependence. Our estimations show that the net effect of treatment is a decrease in deforestation of 15% to 36%. This result is robust to changes in the measure of deforestation as well as in the neighbourhood criteria. Estimates also indicate that effects get weaker the greater the distance to the priority municipality

Predicting Amazon fires for policy making

Wildfires are one of the main threats to the conservation and development of Brazilian Amazon. To address them, policy has relied mainly on fire brigades whose effectiveness crucially depends on correct geographical positioning. Seeking to contribute for better policy planning, the paper focuses on identifying the main predictors of fires at municipal level. An unparalleled panel dataset is built from satellite imagery and socioeconomic data covering the years of 2008, 2010 and 2012. Methodological contributions are made with simple procedures for model selection and robustness assessment. Of the 41 potential predictors, only 9 were significant with tolerable uncertainty, comprising deforestation, pastureland, forest, indigenous lands, temperature and soil texture.

Policies for reduction of greenhouse gases emission and their costs and opportunities for the Brazilian industry

Recent Brazilian industrial policies attempt to accelerate the industrial growth and, among other goals, develop a more efficient industry in terms of energy use. However, typical mechanisms of mitigation policies, such as carbon pricing, can act in a counterproductive way against the incentives of the industrial policy. In this paper we fill a gap in Brazilian literature, estimating the impact of policies to reduce emissions in Brazilian industry, imposing caps to the emissions (CAP scenario) or carbon markets (CAP-ANDTRADE scenario). The results show the importance of sectoral considerations and the design of mechanisms in the formulation of mitigation policies.