In this study, we carried out an assessment of the financial resources made available by federal and state policies that may potentially be used to advance the bioeconomy in the Amazon, taking as an example the states of Pará and Maranhão. We opted to analyze public policies involving significant flows of funds. Our findings reveal that the sources of financial resources assessed by this study largely support agriculture, one of the main drivers of deforestation in the Amazon.
With the implementation of a system capable of certifying the origin of Brazilian gold, the country would have a powerful tool to optimize enforcement actions, curb illegal trade and increase transparency across the entire mineral sector. The Instituto Escolhas studied the market’s characteristics to better understand the institutional and regulatory gaps that prevent greater control over its production chain. The result is an innovative system of traceability and monitoring of the exploration and marketing of gold, using blockchain technology and molecular tags.
A worldwide energy transition process is strengthening, and Brazil is an important country in this process given its highly favourable renewable energy potential, in addition to its already established biofuel production. The Instituto Escolhas, therefore, propose – in partnership with the UK’s Brazilian Energy Programme (BEP) – creating a new RenovaBio Social Certificate, a social certificate under the purview of the National Biofuels Policy (RenovaBio).
Employing new econometric and spatial analysis techniques, this study presents the isolated effect of deforestation on land prices and agricultural product prices. It also proposes a debate on the reasons that keep the incorporation of new areas at the top of the strategies used by Brazilian agriculture to increase its production.
Between 2015 and 2020, Brazil traded 229 tons of gold with evidence of illegality. This means that almost half of the gold produced and exported by the country was of dubious origin. This is one of the key findings of this study carried out by Instituto Escolhas based on the analysis of more than 40,000 records of gold transactions and satellite images of mining operations.
Instituto Escolhas in partnership with the Escopo Energia, developed a study to assess the effects of privatization of Eletrobras. The analysis focuses on the “tortoises”, included in the legal text, that have greater implications for the energy sector: the mandatory contracting of natural gas-fired thermoelectric plants in specific regions; flexibilities for the construction of the Tucuruí Line; new concessions for hydroelectric plants included in the quota regime; a market reserve for Small Hydroelectric Plants (SHPs); and an extension of the Incentive Program for Alternative Sources of Electric Energy (known as Proinfa).
A study carried out by Instituto Escolhas in partnership with Instituto Arapyaú, shows the potential for generating and trading carbon credits produced by REDD + (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) and reforestation projects in Brazilian forest concessions.
Developed by Instituto Escolhas and carried out in partnership with the International Center for Renewable Energies (CIBiogás-ER), reveals the potential for biogas production in all Amazon states, taking advantage of urban solid waste – garbage collected by municipalities – and waste from fish farming and the production of manioc flour, which are important activities in the biome’s bioeconomy.
The Instituto Escolhas has developed a brandnew study that shows how purchasing air conditioners and refrigerators that comply with international energy efficiency standards could bring significant savings for federal and São Paulo state public spending. As the results presented in the opening section of this document demonstrate, when financial resources expenditure respects the principles of sustainability, significant environmental and social gains can ensue.
The Instituto Escolhas in partnership with the United Nations Environment Programme and its initiative “The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity for Agriculture and Food”, known as TEEBAgriFood, launched the study “Beyond food: the contribution of urban agriculture to well-being in the metropolis of São Paulo”, showing that, in addition to feeding the population, agriculture can contribute to mitigating heat, reducing flooding and soil erosion in the metropolis, which can assist with the so-called ecosystem services.
Created by Instituto Escolhas, the study shows how to include environmental costs in the business math of the electricity sector, providing the real dimension of plant profitability so that investments can be prioritized without burdening the present and future generations. To demonstrate how this is possible, the same economic-financial models adopted by the market were used, and the costs of the environmental impacts of hydroelectric plants in the Amazon — natural gas and fuel oil thermoelectric plants, and wind and photovoltaic solar plants — were included in their cash flows. The new financial profitability of these projects was then calculated.
The Instituto Escolhas has developed a brandnew study that shows by 2030, Brazilians could save R$ 101 billion on their electricity bills just by using more energy-efficient refrigerators that comply with the United for Efficiency (U4E) standards – an initiative of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).